Recebemos muitas perguntas, de alunos que já falam inglês, sobre o uso correto do subjuntivo. Aqui vai, em detalhes, uma visão geral do mesmo, como usá-lo e como evitar erros grosseiros.
Enjoy them all!!!
O Subjuntivo é um verbo e caso relativamente especial no idioma.
Construção do Subjuntivo
Sua estrutura é extremamente simples. Para todos os verbos, exceção passado do verbo TO BE, o subjuntivo tem a mesma forma do “bare infinitive”, ou seja, o infinitivo sem o TO.
Veja o diagrama:
to be everything else, same as bare infinitive
past present past and present
he, she, it were
they were I be
he, she, it be
they be I work
he, she, it work
Uso do Subjuntivo
We use subjunctives mainly when talking about events that are not certain to happen. For example, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that somebody:
• wants to happen
• hopes will happen
• imagines happening
Look at these examples:
• The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
• It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
• If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
The subjunctive is typically used after two structures:
• the verbs: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that
• the expressions: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
Here are some examples with the subjunctive:
• The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
• The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
• It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
• It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
Notice that in these structures the subjunctive is always the same. It does not matter whether the sentence is past or present. Look at these examples:
• Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
• Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
• Present: It essential that she be present.
• Past: It was essential that she be present.
We usually use the subjunctive were instead of “was” after if (and other words with similar meaning). Look at these sentences:
• If I were you, I would ask her.
• Suppose she were here. What would you say?
Por que dizemos “I were”, “he were”?
We sometimes hear things like “if I were you, I would go” or “if he were here, he would tell you”. Normally, the past tense of the verb “to be” is: I was, he was. But the if I were you structure does not use the past simple tense of the verb “to be”. It uses the past subjunctive of the verb “to be”. In the following examples, you can see that we often use the subjunctive form were instead of “was” after:
• as if
(The were form is correct at all times.) Informal
(The was form is possible in informal, familiar conversation.)
If I were younger, I would go. If I was younger, I would go.
If he weren’t so mean, he would buy one for me. If he wasn’t so mean, he would buy one for me.
I wish I weren’t so slow! I wish I wasn’t so slow!
I wish it were longer. I wish it was longer.
It’s not as if I were ugly. It’s not as if I was ugly.
She acts as if she were Queen. She acts as if she was Queen.
If I were you, I should tell her. Note: We do not normally say “if I was you”, even in familiar conversation.
Some fixed expressions use the subjunctive. Here are some examples:
• Long live the King!
• God bless America!
• Heaven forbid!
• Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
• Come what may, I will never forget you.
• We are all citizens of the world, as it were
Caso tenha alguma dúvida quanto a compreensão de quaisquer sentenças, não hesite em nos visitar no http://www.interlearningcenter.com, seção TIRA DÚVIDAS.
Até a próxima.